A Phoenician-Punic Grammar (Handbuch Der Orientalistik) by Charles R. Krahmalkov

By Charles R. Krahmalkov

This quantity comprises the phonology, orthography, morphology, syntax, language and utilization of the Phoenician-Punic language. It comprises examples from texts and dialects, together with fragments of a Punic drama, to convey to lifestyles the grammatical description of this language. the outline of the literary language holds that stressful and element reference of a given type of the verb is essentially a functionality of syntax, no longer morphology.

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Traditional Punic literature was also cultivated in the West but save for a few extant specimens preserved in stone, little has survived. C. The work survives because of its inclusion in a Carthaginian inscription (CIS i 5510) as a synchronism, to provide an historical reference to establish the date of the suffetship of Esmunamos son of Idnibal the Great and Hanno son of Bostar son of Hanno the Great. The extant Punic text appears to be the closing portion of a full account of the Agrigentine campaign; and it was surely this Punic historical source that was consulted by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (wrote ca.

1017 iadata yada'ta ("you know") and Neo-Punic D 6 garasth garast ("I expelled"). The a is also retained in a unstressed syllable closed by a laryngeal or pharyngeal: NPu Poen. 933 m a r o b ma'rob ("custody"). In a doubly closed syllable, the vowel is always a: NPu LA 1 p. 45 no. 2 sath sat < sant ("year"); D 6 sath sat < sattfi) ("I placed"). g. 14 e r s ers (yR$ "land"; cf. Hebrew Jeres); NPu LA 1 p. 45 no. 1/2, 8 iyra yira(h) {TRff "month"; cf Hebrewyerah). In an open or closed stressed syllable, the sound-change a>o was characteristic and distinctive of Tyro-Sidonian among the Canaanite languages: Phoenician milkot < milkat ("Queen" = Ilat) in the personal name Ab-di-mi-il-ku-ut-ti (Esar.

10 sibtat al $umur ("The city of Sumur has been destroyed"). 52). This same reduction explains the PL 3. 2 felu felu < felu

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