Advanced Biology Notes by David Harrison Ph.D. (auth.)

By David Harrison Ph.D. (auth.)

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1. Binary fission. In good growth conditions transverse fission takes place following mitotic divisions of the macro- and micro- nuclei. Photomicrograph ofParamecium in conjugation Meganucleus t Micronucleus / daughter individuals then separate The details of nuclear divisions during conjugation are relatively unimportant and vary from species to species. The importance of Paramecium in relation to higher animals lies in: (a) formation of haploid gametes by meiosis; (b) exchange of gametes and their fusion to form a zygote; 33 (c) migratory gamete contains little cytoplasm; (d) gamete nuclei exchanged between members of different strains (sexes).

In amphibians the system is not single, as in fishes, nor yet entirely double, as in mammals, since the heart has a single ventricle. Heart walls receive 0 2 and food solutes from contained blood; there is no coronary system as in higher vertebrates. Aortic arches are symmetrical (compare mammals); conus arteriosus branches into right and left truncus arteriosus, from each of which arises three arches (carotid, systemic and pulmo-cutaneous). Spiral valve: function not clear; once thought to direct 'most oxygenated' blood into carotid arches (operating in conjunction with carotid labrinth) but it is now known that the three arches fill simultaneously and the 0 2 concentration is much the same in all.

Pandorina is anisogamous (heterogamous). Gametes fuse to form a zygote which develops a resistant wall. When favourable conditions return the zygote nucleus divides meiotically then mitotically and growth and differentiation take place to form a new colony. "' /1I , / \ \ \ Meiosis. then repeated m1totJc dhiiSions to form \new colony \ \ Photomicrograph ofEudorina \ Reproduction Gamete from another colony Sexual Reproduction The patterns of reproduction, both asexual and sexual, are essentially the same as in Pandorina.

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