By Marta Boaro, Aricò Antonino Salvatore
In this booklet recognized specialists spotlight state of the art study priorities and talk about the state-of-the-art within the box of stable oxide gas cells giving an replace on particular topics akin to protonic conductors, interconnects, electrocatalytic and catalytic strategies and modelling approaches.Fundamentals and advances during this box are illustrated to aid younger researchers deal with concerns within the characterization of fabrics and within the research of techniques, infrequently tackled in scholarly books.
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Extra info for Advances in Medium and High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology
Let us now concentrate on fuel cell behaviour and assume that electrolysers will behave more or less symmetrically (which they almost do). Figure 12 shows a ‘typical’ I–V curve for a fuel cell device. The curve is only linear in its central section, indicating that here Ohm’s law is valid, although only in the formulation according to Eq. (34) for voltage differentials DU ¼ DI Ã Ri ð35Þ Both the region close to I = 0 and towards large currents require more explanation, though. Figure 13 shows a ‘Tafel plot’ which is essentially a modiﬁed I–V diagram.
A plot of efﬁciency versus cell voltage shows a linear dependency, as expected (Fig. 14). This indicates that in contrast to the Carnot efﬁciency (Fig. 6), a fuel cell can potentially reach extremely high efﬁciencies as long as materials can be employed that produce extremely low overpotentials. In essence even, any fuel cell operating at low current densities will by principle have very high efﬁciencies. Technically this is meaningless, because the power delivered will be low. But it does go to show the valuable potential dormant in fuel cell technology.
The electrochemical driving force of an electrode process is the overpotential, and the current density is reflecting the resulting reaction rate. Thus, the natural test method should be potentiostatic (constant voltage), but due to historical reasons and Testing of Electrodes, Cells, and Short Stacks 47 the easiness of doing galvanostatic (constant current) tests, almost all reported cell tests have been galvanostatic. The galvanostatic test results may be signiﬁcantly different from the potentiostatic, because a change in driving force (overpotential) may cause changes in electrode mechanisms during the test.