By University John Buckler
This booklet covers the political, diplomatic, and armed forces background of the Aegean Greeks of the fourth century BC, elevating new questions and delving into outdated disputes and controversies. It comprises their strength struggles, the Persian involvement of their affairs, and the final word Macedonian conquer Greece. It bargains with the political thought of federalism and its family to the correct of the polis. the amount concludes with the triumph of Macedonian monarchy over the polis.
In facing the nice public problems with fourth-century Greece, the method of them contains a blend of resources. the standard literary and archaeological info varieties the basic beginning for the topographical exam of each significant web site pointed out within the textual content. Numismatic proof likewise unearths its position the following.
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All of the major cities of Ionia, Lydia, and Karia stood under Spartan control. The major ones in the east included Selymbria, Byzantion, and Chalkedon, all of which guarded access to the Euxine Sea. They also stood as perpetual threats to the Athenian grain route to the modern Crimea. Southwards Spartan control of Kyzikos, Lampsakos, and Abydos further tightened their hold on this vital region. Still farther south from Lesbos, past Phokaia and Chios major cities such as Kyme, Ephesos, Miletos, and Knidos gave their loyalty to Sparta.
An additional problem was the Spartan failure to appreciate the importance of cavalry in the intended ﬁeld of operations. The Spartans had long considered cavalry an inferior arm, but in the open plains of the Anatolian river valleys, lack of it prevented mobility and ease of operations. Even were a suitable army assembled, the Spartans lacked eﬃcient commanders. Although some had held local commands, none had directed a grand campaign. In that respect they lacked the experience and vision of Lysandros.
Due, C&M 38 (1987) 53–63; Shipley, Plutarch’s Agesilaos, 96–105. 29 After their service to the state, some were callously discarded, sometimes under very suspicious circumstances. Perhaps even more importantly, many full Spartan citizens, the “Equals”, were losing their lands and therewith their political status. Despite the myth of equality among the citizenry, from the outset some Spartans held more land than others, and strove increasingly to gain even more. That process belongs properly to local Spartan history; but several factors, pertinent to larger issues, merit brief mention here.