Animal Welfare and Meat Science by Neville G Gregory

By Neville G Gregory

Animal welfare concerns have gotten more and more well-known in animal prodution, for either monetary and ethical purposes. This publication provides a transparent figuring out of the connection among the welfare of significant foodstuff animal species and their body structure, and the direct impression this has on meat caliber. This new version makes a speciality of fresh study and advancements and in addition appears to be like into welfare in aquaculture.

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26 • • Chapter 2 Retching phase. This is a pre-expulsion phase in which there is a series of large negative pressure pulses in the thorax at the same time as positive pressure pulses in the abdomen. This causes the gastric contents to rock back and forward between the stomach and oesophagus. Expulsion phase. After a period of retching, the diaphragm is flattened and a quick jerk of the abdominal muscles expels the contents of the upper part of the stomach into the oesophagus and out through the mouth/nose.

Warriss et al. (1994) found that the intensity of pig squeals during handling in a commercial slaughter plant was correlated with physiological indicators of stress. The intensity of pig squealing was measured by recordings from a sound meter. Survey results indicated that plants with good equipment and well trained employees in the stunning area attained low cattle vocalization percentages of 3% or less (Grandin, 1997b). In a plant with careful quiet handling, and a state-of-the-art restraining conveyor system, over 300 feedlot heifers were scored for vocalization.

Changes sensed by the vestibular apparatus send nervous impulses to the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata in the brain. This region of the brain controls expulsive activity during vomiting, and a region which is dorsolateral to this structure controls retching activity. Projections from the medulla are responsible for the autonomic and sensory effects that occur during motion sickness. Vibration of the truck during transport can create discomfort and it may lead to motion sickness. Vibration arises from acceleration, deceleration and uneven road surfaces.

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