Armenia A Country Study by Federal Research Division

By Federal Research Division

Within the final many years of the 19th century, the Armenians' tendency towards Europeanization antagonized Turkish officers and inspired their view that Armenians have been a overseas, subversive aspect within the sultan's realm. by way of 1890 the swift progress of the Kurdish inhabitants in Anatolia, mixed with the immigration of Muslims from the Balkans and the Caucasus, had made the Armenian inhabitants of Anatolia an more and more endangered minority. In 1895 Ottoman suspicion of the westernized Armenian inhabitants resulted in the bloodbath of 300,000 Armenians via unique order of the Ottoman govt.

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A lasting treaty was delayed, however, by persistent disagreement over the nationality of peacekeeping forces that would occupy Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan resisted the return of Russian troops to its territory, while the Russian plan called for at least half the forces to be Russian. On both diplomatic and economic fronts, new signs of stability caused guarded optimism in Armenia in the fall of 1994. The failure of the CSCE peace plan, which Azerbaijan supported, had caused that country to mount an all-out, human- wave offensive in December 1993 and January 1994, which initially pushed back Armenian defensive lines in Karabakh and regained some lost territory.

Foreign Relations: In early 1990s, foreign policy determined strongly by NagornoKarabakh conflict with Azerbaijan. Some rapprochement with traditional enemy Turkey and Iran. Limited relations established with Western Europe. Close ties with Russia and accords with other members of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Worldwide Armenian diaspora facilitates foreign support. International Agreements and Memberships: Member of United Nations, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe.

October In first multiparty election held in Georgia, Gamsakhurdia's oppositionist party crushes communists; Gamsakhurdia named president. 1991 January Georgian forces invade South Ossetia in response to independence movement there; fighting continues all year; Soviet troops invade Azerbaijan, ostensibly to halt anti-Armenian pogroms. April After referendum approval, Georgian parliament declares Georgia independent of Soviet Union. May Gamsakhurdia becomes first president of Georgia, elected directly in multiparty election.

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