By C. M. Rodkiewicz (eds.)
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Extra resources for Arteries and Arterial Blood Flow
Apparent viscosity of blood, withdrawn with addition of anticoagulant, varies as a function of the sample hematocrit Ya . Apparent relative viscosity shear rate = where np H and the applied is : = ( 3. 1 ) is the plasma viscosity. 2) that is (i) as for any suspension, blood viscosity increases when volume fractiongrows and (ii) blood is a non-newtonian (shear-thinning) fluid. Eq. 1) for local values of the relative viscosity nr nr(H , yr) under steady conditions. The present section 1s devoted to the analysis of concentration effects on blood viscosity at fixed applied shear rate, nr = nr(H) especially at very low or very high shear rates when the suspension behaves as a newtonian fluid.
Shear thinning behaviour of blood, at constant hematocrit in the range 40-50%, is a very marked effect, as shown on Fig. 1. , 1970. 1. Comparison of the relative viscosities of normal red cells suspended in plasma and isotonic saline. , 1971). viscosity at low shear rate and, on the contrary, a high shear viscosity higher than the corresponding blood viscosity (NP). 51 Effects of RBC Aggregation and Deformation Fundamental determinants of blood viscosity were found by S. CHIEN (1970). He compared non newtonian behaviour of the following RBC suspensions at same Hematocrit (H=45): (i) NP = normal RBC in plasma, where fibrinogen and ~-globulins promote the reversible RBC aggregation by molecular bridging to form rouleaux; (ii) NA = normal RBC in albumin-Ringer solution where no detectable aggregation can be observed; (iii) HA = hardened RBC (by glutaraldehyde) in albumin-Ringer solution.
4. Application to blood and RBC suspensions The models given above were extensively used to fit blood and RBC suspension data, obtained from artificially prepared samples*, since normal hematocrit is about 40 - 45 • As hematocrit is not the true volume concentration <1> , a difficulty arises for applying model equations to data. In fact, as it has been pointed out, hematocrit measurements depend not only on centrifugation * Separating RBC and plasma from centrifugation, removing the "buffy coat": (platelets and white cells) and mixing remaining RBC and plasma in the desired proportions.