Auditory And Vestibular Organs of Marine Mammals (Russian by G. N. Sointseva

By G. N. Sointseva

The elemental instructions of the structural evolution of the outer, center and internal ears in representatives of a large ecological variety of mammals (terrestrial, subterranean, aerial, semi-aquatic and aquatic kinds, together with marine mammals) were traced during this monograph for the 1st time. The extensive spectrum of the species studied and the appliance of recent anatomical, optical and bio-mechanical tools allowed the writer to explain formerly unknown structural gains of the peripheral a part of the auditory procedure in animals with a diversified specialization of listening to. The impression of ecological and evolutionary components at the structural association of the auditory organ used to be analyzed. The ecological and morphological method was once precious in revealing the truth that the peculiarities within the auditory organ constitution in several mammalian teams have been stipulated by way of the animals' variation to convinced acoustic gains of habitat. Morphological and sensible diversifications of the peripheral a part of the auditory approach directed to the optimization of auditory sensitivity in numerous habitats proved to be important in evolution. specific recognition used to be paid to the fewer generally studied orders of mammals (pinnipeds, cetaceans), being of curiosity either from the viewpoint in their echolocation talents (in dolphins) and the impact of water habitat at the morphological variation improvement within the constitution of the peripheral a part of the auditory analyzer in semi-aquatic and aquatic species. The e-book is illustrated with a great number of unique micro-photos, photographs, drawings and is geared toward morphologists, zoologists, ecologists and experts, operating within the box of bionics, in addition to scholars and tutors of organic and clinical departments in institutes and universities. Galina N. Solntseva is a Professor on the Laboratory for Bioacoustics within the A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution Russian Academy of Sciences. She is a well known professional within the box of the evolutionary morphology of listening to. G.N. Solntseva has studied the peripheral a part of the auditory process in representatives of alternative ecological teams of mammals for a few years. She has taken half in different marine expeditions within the Black, Caspian, White Seas and within the Sea of Okhotsk to be able to acquire morphological fabric and this has allowed her to assemble a special (in phrases of quantity and species range) choice of morphological fabric on marine mammals. G.N. Solntseva is the writer of greater than 100 clinical works during this box, together with the monograph "The Auditory approach of Mammals", issued in 1979 via the publishing apartment "Nauka".

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Muscles of the tympanum regulate the transition of auditory energy and preserve the inner ear from super-intensive sounds. Ligaments keep auditory ossicles in a definite position. The middle ear is separated from the outer ear by a tympanic membrane, stretched onto a tympanic ring (anulus tympanicus) (Fig. 9a-c). The tympanic membrane is formed by three layers. Its basis is composed of radially and circularly directed connective-tissue fibers, which grow together with the periosteum of the malleus handle (manubrium mallei), set into the tympanic membrane.

The tympanic ring is round. The tympanic bone forms the tympanum, which has smooth walls but lacks osseous beams and columns. In Hystrix, the long arm of the malleus is shortened down to a small, weakly defined process at the ventral edge of the malleus head. A muscular arm is located in the middle part of the handle. The long arm of the incus is elevated ventrally and slightly occipitally. Compared to the length of crura, the stapes has a large base. The crura are hollow and are located at the middle of the base.

The long arm of the malleus is thin, transitioning to a gracile arm, which is not joined to the wall of the tympanum. The muscular arm is located on the handle of the malleus. The incus is large, and the stapes is differentiated into crura. It is worth mentioning, though, that in tree shrews and semi-monkeys, the tympanic bulla is large and spacious, while in true monkeys it is in most cases narrow and small. 7. Edentates (Edentata) A description of the middle ear has been made using representatives of four orders [Hyrtl, 1844; Doran, 1878; Van Kampen, 1905; Bondy, 1907; Frey, 1911; Gutha, 1961], with significant differences revealed in middle ear structure.

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