Biomarker by T. Khan

By T. Khan

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1989). Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes has also been demonstrated. For example, DNA methylation interferes in the expression of key cell cycle checkpoints genes: p16INK4A, p15INK4B, Rb, p14ARF. These are the most studied genes used to correlate methylation and cell cycle control in several cancer types (Esteller, 2011). DNA or chromatin epigenetic alterations have been directly related to molecular changes to cancer development. Some epigenenetic modifications have been usefulness as biomarkers to aid in the clinicaltherapeutic decision.

In other hand, DNMT3A and DNMT3B play essential role for DNA hemi-methylation or unmethylated with the same level. Catalytic methyl-transferase of DNMT3A or DNMT3B is mainly promoted in cytosine preceded by guanine at the CpG dinucleotide. DNA methylation is a no random phenomenon. , 1999; Tabby & Issa, 2010; Worn & Gulberg, 2002). DNA methylation is frequently associated to transcriptional gene repression. It has been suggested that repression occurs by physically interfering in transcriptional factors binding at gene promoter regions, modified by 5’-methylcitosine or by recruiting methylated-DNA binding domain (MBD) proteins that block an original site of transcriptional factor.

The mean, known also as the arithmetic mean, median and mode are three common measures of central tendency. Quantitative indices that describe the variation or dispersion of a distribution are referred to as measures of dispersion. The range, variance and standard deviation are three common measures of dispersion. In medicine we usually work with other quantitative indices as risk difference, relative risk and odds ratio. To draw inferences and reach conclusions about a population, when only a sample from that population has been studied, we need to know probability, because we use statistical hypothesis testing and estimates.

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