Causality: The Place of the Causal Principle in Modern by Mario Augusto Bunge

By Mario Augusto Bunge

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Although monopoly capital had become increasingly dominant within the industrial accumulation process, it had not permeated critical decision-making centers within the state apparatus. 22 Chapter Two Even though the state apparatus had been altered in such a fashion as to expand its administrative capacities to correspond with the changing nature of economic activity on the national level by the 1920s. 9 1HE 'IENDENCY TOWARD CONCENTRATION AND CENTRALIZATION OF CAPITAL The process of capitalist production and accumulation in the United States had produced a greater tendency toward the growth of monopoly capital as early as 1860.

In general. mass production was based on the standasdization of pasts and interchangeable mechanisms. and it required technological and organizational innovations. the availability of ade­ quate capital. '· Hence. the introduction of mass-production industries required ce«ain changes in the organization of production itself. with corresponding changes in the labor pro­ cess and the conditions of labor for the working class. Mass-production techniques first appeased in industries that processed liq­ uids or semiliquids.

The upswing phase was characterized by the generalization of monopoly competition, accompanied by a rise in the productivity of labor, which resulted in a rise in the rate of surplus value. The downswing phase was characterized by declining profits. gradually decelerating accumulation. decelerating economic growth, and increasing difficulties with the realization of surplus value. ' By the end of the nineteenth century, the tendency toward large-scale indus­ trial production, with fewer firms dominating a larger share of the industrial market.

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