By Harold Hillman
It would appear a suitable time to think again the mobile constitution of the mammalian apprehensive method for the next purposes. to start with, there's enormous confusion within the literature in regards to the visual appeal of different sorts of neuroglia via mild and via electron microscopy, and this can be complemented via common disagreements between wonderful neuropathologists in regards to the foreign category of tumours of the crucial frightened procedure. Secondly, there's an expanding quantity of experiments at the body structure and biochemistry of tissue cultures of neurons and other forms of neuroglia, whose validity is dependent upon the exact id of either the mother or father tissue and likewise of the cells for that reason growing to be in tradition. The biochemical classifica tion lately has frequently tended to develop into self sufficient of the mobile id, which makes using the neuroglial mobile names uncertain and the importance of the biochemical homes of the cells tricky to narrate to the physiological homes in vitro or in vivo (Table 1).
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Additional info for The Cellular Structure of the Mammalian Nervous System: A re-examination, and some consequences for neurobiology
I\J Fedoroff( 1978) Fedoroff( 1978) Lindsay, Barber, Sherwood Zimmer and Raisman (1982) Murray(l965 ) Lindsay, Barber, Sherwood Zimmer and Raisman (1982) Lindsay, Barber, Sherwood Zimmer and Raisman (1982) Lumsden (1958) Lumsden (1958) Lumsden(1958) Cannot distinguish between oligodendrocytes and neurons Cannot distinguish between astrocytes and neurons Cannot distinguish between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes Vernadakis and Culver(1979) Murray(l965) Varon, Raiborn, Seto and Pomerat(l963) Hild and Tasaki( 1962) Bornstein and Appel(1961) Lumsden (1958) Geiger(1957) 'Neuroglia' used without differentiation into type TABLE 5 Light microscopic studies of tissue culture in which the authors point to their inability to distinguish neurons and the different kinds of neuroglia m ~ ~ m s:: c(JJ o< II m z » z r » » s:: s:: s:: m --i I o"T1 m II C o--i C --i II (JJ II ~ C r r om --i I METHODS OF STUDYING NEURAL STRUCTURE TABLE 6 Authors using illustrations of light microscopic studies of tissue cultures who have not indicated anatomical criteria that they use for identification of particular cell types Tissue Authors Human, monkey and rabbit cortex Geiger( 1957) Kitten corpus callosum Murray( 1958) Rat cerebellum Bornstein and Appel(1961) Rat and cat cerebellum Hild and Tasaki (1962) Rabbit cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum Varon, Raibprn, Seto and Pomerat(1963) Kitten thalamus and cerebellum Murray( 1965) Rat cerebral hemispheres Dittman, Sen sen brenner, Hertz and Mandel(1975) Rat cerebral hemispheres Moonen, Cam, Sensenbrenner and Mandel (197 5) Mouse dorsal root ganglion Shahar, Grunfeld, Spiegelstein and Monzain (1975) Mouse and rat spinal cord Crain(1976) Mouse cerebellum Seil and Leiman (1977) Mice brain hemispheres Fedoroff (197 8) Rat optic nerve Raff, Mirsky, Fields, Lisak, Dorfman, Silberberg, Gregson, Leibowitz and Kennedy(1978) Rat brain Lindsay(1979) Rat corpus callosum, optic nerve, cerebral cortex, cerebellum Raff, Fields, Hakamori, Mirsky, Pruss and Winter(1979) Rat and mouse brain hemispheres Hannson, Sellstrom, Persson and Ronnback(1980) Rat brain Abney, Bartlett and Raff(1981) Rat cerebellum Bartlett, Noble, Pruss, Raff, Rattray and Williams (1981) Rat cerebellum Cohen and Selvendran( 1981) Rat cerebellum Currie and Kelly (1981) Rat brain Lindsay, Barber, Sherwood, Zimmer and Raisman ( 1982 ) 43 THE CELLULAR STRUCTURE OF THE MAMMALIAN NERVOUS SYSTEM TABLE 7 Ratios of the activities in neurons and neuroglia of 51 different enzymes from the literature Enzyme Glia Ratio of activity of neurons to Astrocytes Oligodendroglia Group I.
Thus one can draw up a table of authors who say quite specifically that one cannot distinguish clearly between any two kinds of cells by light microscopy (Table 2). This understanding poses a considerable threat to the neurohistologists, who thought that they had been saved by the electron microscopists. Unfortunately, the 36 METHODS OF STUDYING NEURAL STRUCTURE electron microscopists cannot be too much help, because they agree on the difficulty of distinguishing beyond any reasonable peradventure on the differences, particularly between the different kinds of neuroglia (Table 3).
1936). The Permeability of Natural Membranes (Cambridg e University Press, Cambridge), by kind permission of the authors and publisher The fluid mosaic hypothesis of membrane structure was first put forward by Singer and Nicholson (1972) and is now widely accepted as if it were a finding (Semenza and Carafoli, 1977; Repke, 1980; Kates and Kuksis, 1980). It originated from some thermodynamic conside rations, and studies on the distribution of antigens applied to red cell me mbranes and detected by freeze etching (Figure 13).