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Read or Download Hobbs' Food Poisoning and Food Hygiene, 7th edition. Edited by Jim McLaughlin and Christine Little. Hodder Arnold (2007). ISBN: 978-0-340-90530-2 PDF
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Extra info for Hobbs' Food Poisoning and Food Hygiene, 7th edition. Edited by Jim McLaughlin and Christine Little. Hodder Arnold (2007). ISBN: 978-0-340-90530-2
The vast majority of micro-organisms, by deﬁnition, are very much smaller than this and can only be visualized using a Viruses differ from other types of micro-organism in that they are incapable of growth outside a host. Viruses require a living cell in which to replicate and all groups of organisms are parasitized by viruses, including bacteria. Bacterial viruses are known as bacteriophages or phages. e. bacteriophage typing) where patterns of reactions are used to identify types (see later discussion this chapter).
Typhi, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. Viruses are classiﬁed differently. They are not usually given a binomial name, although there are some exceptions, for example the virus that causes smallpox, which is called Variola major. In addition, viruses are structurally quite different from other micro-organisms. The foodborne viruses will be described later in this chapter (p. 20). Major groupings of micro-organisms Organisms can be further classiﬁed into larger groupings (kingdoms, phyla, classes, orders and families).
Prions cause a number of distinct diseases of which bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and its human equivalent (variant Creutzfeldt–Jacob disease) gained much notoriety in the UK during the 1980s. These agents are brieﬂy discussed in Chapter 4, p. 90. 2) is a branch of biology concerned with the arrangement of organisms into groups or taxa. 2 The three components of taxonomy Classiﬁcation – the arrangement of organisms into groups, usually reﬂecting the way in which organisms have evolved (phylogenetic classiﬁcation) Nomenclature – the assignment of names to groups of organisms so that they are recognized in the same way by independent workers Identiﬁcation – the recognition of new microbial isolates that determine their assignment to a preexisting group of organisms already established by the process of classiﬁcation and named in the process of assigning a nomenclature.